Other June pages: Meadow and field flowers • Wayside flowers • Downland and seaside flowers • Hedgerow, trees and berries • Butterflies and insects • Weather
For pictures, more information and sound clips of the birds mentioned here, see the RSPB website.
There is noticeably less birdsong in June than earlier in the spring. You can still sometimes hear several layers of sound in the first week to ten days, but as the month goes on it becomes much more sporadic - one or two birds heard at a time instead of them singing all around you. Things are more intense towards dusk, but even here there is a sense that birdsong is thinning out by the second half. Having said that, you can still hear a good variety of species in an average day.
The reason for the reduction is that the breeding period for many species is already over and those that are still rearing young (or perhaps even raising a second brood) are busy feeding their chicks and have less time (or need) to sing. It is an irony that at the end of June bird populations are at their height due to all those youngsters, but the birds become a lot less visible. As the summer goes on many of the newcomers will fall victim to predators.
Birds that are generally not heard in June are great tits, coal tits and blue tits, all of whom have finished raising their young by early in the month. Very occasionally one may hear a brief snatch of the see-saw mating songs of great or coal tits, however. Whether this is fledgling males trying out their voices or mature ones hopeful of a second brood, I do not know. Equally rarely you can hear faint churring contact calls of blue or great tits, but generally this sound, so common for much of the rest of the year, is absent in June.
Another bird whose song is prominent the rest of the year - the robin - also falls silent in June. In the first half you may hear brief outbursts of their twittering, usually towards dusk, but these tend to be isolated examples.
More vocal are chaffinches, whose song can be heard fairly frequently early in the month but usually only once or twice a day by the end. The same is true of chiffchaffs. Chaffinches also make a repeated, metronomic "hweet….hweet…..hweet" call (recording - though it is sometimes a bit softer toned than this - recording), occasionally interspersing it with their characteristic "chink chink" call. This can be heard right till the end of the month, but the chiffchaff also has a very similar call (recording) and I have several times identified it doing this in June. Only a sighting of the bird can decide the question definitively.
Greenfinches are also reasonably active in June, nearly always making their trilling and wheezing song near houses and towards evening. They are fairly easy to spot as they sing from the top of trees or bushes. Goldfinches continue to twitter away: they have a noise they make when in communal flight, but if you look closely you can also see single males singing on high perches. Occasionally you even get two males competing from neighbouring trees. Towards the end of the month goldfinches seem to become more vocal but this may be just because they become more noticeable as other birdsong fades away.
One other bird that is still prominent in June is the blackbird. They can be heard at any time of day but most frequently in the early evening. Early in the month you can still here several layers of blackbird song at this time. By the end of the month the song is becoming rarer - you maybe hear only one or two birds on an evening walk, and one of those might be very distant. They sometimes also make a tup-tup sound at dusk to mark their territory.
Also heard almost exclusively at dusk, though occasionally in the afternoon, is the song thrush. It is a rare evening even at the end of the month when you don't hear at least one but there is none of the intense competition between rivals one hears earlier in the year. They are often the last bird singing as the light fades.
Another quite prominent song - particularly in areas of low bushes - is the whitethroat, which has brief scratchy riff. Its song is easy to confuse with that of the blackcap, which is longer, more emphatic and starts with a series of mumbling, hesitant notes before launching into its main riff. Both birds are vocal throughout the month. To complicate things further dunnocks also have a similar song to the blackcap's only less emphatic and a bit quieter. They are more commonly heard in early spring, but I have definitely identified them singing in June too. As they are notoriously promiscuous birds I can only speculate that perhaps they are going for a second brood at this time of year.
Whitethroats love scrubland, such as clifftops or downland near the sea, and in this habitat there are other birds to look out for. Easiest to spot - or at least hear - are larks, who twitter away high the sky, singing multiple notes per second (too fast for the human ear to hear properly) - one of the most evocative sounds of the summer. In places - try the grassland inland of the coast path from Beachy Head to Birling Gap - there can be several singing away at once. Larks are also surprisingly common over arable fields, presumably nesting among the crops.
Back on downland and in scrubby areas by the sea, meadow pipits do a characteristic rising and descending display flight with a piping song to match. If you follow the sound you can see them perched on top of prominent bushes. Much less commonly, but on the same kind of perches, you may see a stonechat, or hear its song, which sounds like two stones being bashed together. Rarer still, at least in this part of the world, is the twittering song of the linnet or the descending notes of willow warblers.
Also sometimes seen on downland, but more common on farmland, are yellowhammers - as colourful as their name suggests but surprisingly well camouflaged against hedgerows. Their song is a rapid series of notes followed by a very distinctive long"eee". But they sometimes leave out the "eee". If you follow the sound to its source, the birds are not that hard to spot, as they tend to sing from prominent positions.
Meanwhile, you can still see swallows swooping for insects, or are they house martins? Both birds have white bellies and both fly pretty fast, making identification hard. Perhaps the easiest way to distinguish them is that swallows quite often fly very low - sometimes only half a metre above the ground - turning sharply and unexpectedly with great skill and even dipping into ponds to drink while on the wing. They also have a long forked tail and a dark throat, if you ever get that good a look at them.
House martins, by contrast, are more sociable, nearly always appearing in chattering groups, and nearly always seen near buildings, where they nest in colonies. They tend to fly at rooftop height, in a sort of "flap flap glide" flight rather than the smooth swoop of the swallow. They have a stubbier tail and a white patch on their rumps (the bottom of their back) and a habit of landing on a fence or telephone wire and then suddenly taking off again. The two species also have distinctive calls - the house martin's being a kind of staccato rasp and the swallow sounding like a squeaky bath toy being rapidly pressed.
Often lumped together with these two, but in fact from a quite different family of birds, is the swift, which does not in fact fly that fast, and has distinctive swept-back wings and entirely dark plumage. They generally are often seen high in the sky, particularly over ancient towns with convenient church towers to nest in, but also sometimes in more rural areas, where they can sometimes come quite close to the ground in pursuit of food. At such times you may hear their screaming call. They spiral upwards into the sky at night to sleep on the wing and even mate in the air. The only time they ever land is to raise young.
Other birdsong in June includes the sudden trilling outburst of the wren which can be heard throughout the month (usually in single outbursts, though sometimes in repeated runs), and the incessant cheeping of sparrows, always found near houses. You also quite regularly hear the "hoo-HOO-HOO-hoo-hoo" song of wood pigeons - a very summery sound - but make sure you are not hearing the very similar song - "hoo-hooo hoo" - of the collared dove. Both are usually found near houses, the collared dove almost exclusively so. In woods you can also occasionally hear the throaty "whoo" of a stock dove.
Early in the month you may also hear the laughing "yaffle" of the green woodpecker and even more rarely a cuckoo. Occasionally a nuthatch gives a snatch of its "de-dit de-dit de-dit" call. If you are in Seaford in Sussex then June is the month to see a colony of kittiwakes, seagull-like seabirds that nest on the white cliffs at the eastern end of the beach - a sight one normally only expects to see on remoter coasts. In marshy areas with lots of reeds the scolding call of the reed warbler can sometimes be heard.
More June pages:
- Meadow and field flowers
- Wayside flowers
- Downland and seaside flowers
- Hedgerow, trees and berries
- Butterflies and insects
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