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June wayside flowers

Other June pages: Meadow and field flowersDownland and seaside flowersHedgerow, trees and berriesBirds Butterflies and insectsWeather

Picture: poppies in a wheat field. Click here for more June wayside flower photos. 

The lovely blooms of May that line country lanes are no more in June, and by mid month the path and lane verges that were a riot of colour earlier in spring have reverted to plain green. But there are still a wonderful variety of flowers to be seen if you keep your eyes peeled - perhaps the most species of any month in the year.

Among the most noticeable June flowers are oxeye daisies, which favour dry grassy banks. By the end of the month they are past their best but they can crop up in places into July. Other verge flowers include red campion, which can survive in places right through the month, and the less common white campion and bladder campion: there is also a pink campion, which is a hybrid of red and white, though this is actually quite rare: more usually you just see red campion with lighter pink colourings.

Note also delicate purple spikes of hedge woundwort which can be found throughout the month in shadier places. In the second half it is joined by the pink-flowered black horehound (which is nicer than its name suggests): both have nettle-like leaves. Throughout the month one might see the purple or blue flowers of Russian comfrey, which is more common than the native common comfrey (see Damp places below). Just occasionally creeping comfrey survives into June.

This is also the month of the enormous purple spikes of foxgloves, which go over towards the month’s end, and beautiful hedgerow cranesbill. You may also see the larger, showier meadow cranesbill, which often appears to be a garden escapee in the south east, though it grows wild in Wiltshire and Oxfordshire. In addition you see a lot of French cranesbill, which is a sort of pink version of meadow cranesbill and usually has spread from nearby gardens onto wild verges.

Much smaller cranesbills such as dovesfoot cranesbill, cut-leaved cranesbill and small-flowered cranesbill (with pale lilac flowers) are found on verges too, and more rarely you might see round-leaved cranesbill, shiny cranesbill or even pencilled cranesbill. A much commoner member of this family is herb robert, which is less frequent than it was in May, but still survives in places in June on shady road and path edges.

Early in the month you may still see May survivors such as white deadnettle, common vetch, bush vetch, ground ivy, bugle, wood spurge and wild strawberry (though the latter is also producing its tiny fruits by now). In late springs some garlic mustard or greater stitchwort may also scrape into June. Very rarely fodder vetch, a kind of outsized bush vetch, may be seen flowering on path verges in arable areas - not to be confused with the attractive tufted vetch, seen later in the month. Wood avens (aka herb bennet) is already past its best early in the month but can last in places until late in the month.

Also occasionally found until late in June, usually near houses, is green alkanet (which is blue-flowered: the green in its name refers to its leaves being around most of the year, ie evergreen). Some tiny-flowered forget-me-nots also survive (usually field forget-me-not, though early forget-me-not is possible). In addition, you may see isolated clumps of greater celandine - nothing to do with the lesser celandine that flowers in early spring, but a relative of the poppy.

Umbellifers and other plant families

Cow parsley has gone over in late May (exceptionally it may last into the first week of June) and in place of its dreamy drifts of white flowers there are only brown seedheads. But you might be fooled into thinking some of it is still out, because a range of other similar flowers – from the family known as umbellifers – appear in June. Most similar to cow parsley is rough chervil, which has purplish stems (though some start out green) that are rough to the touch, and delicate separate elements to its flower heads.

A larger and coarser umbellifer is hogweed, which can be seen in places right from the start of the month and is ubiquitous by the third week along lane and path verges. (I often wonder if its name refers to its aroma, which is slightly unpleasant). You might also see giant hogweed, a rather terrifying outsized version of the flower, introduced in Victorian times from the Caucasus. If you are not sure you are seeing a giant hogweed, then you are not: it is unmistakably bigger than ordinary hogweed in scale - sometimes as large as a tree - with flowers up to 30 centimetres across and very different leaves. It is an irritant to the skin and should not be touched.

Even more deadly is hemlock water dropwort, a very poisonous umbellifer that is very commonly seen flowering in ditches and streams in June, fading in the second half: it looks far too attractive for such a harmful plant. The same cannot be said of hemlock, which is tall (not infrequently two metres or more) and untidy-looking, with purple blotches on its woody stems. Also poisonous (it was the drug used to execute Socrates in ancient Greece), it can form modest patches on road and stream banks throughout the month.

A less lethal umbellifer, but a massive irritant to gardeners (it is almost impossible to eradicate), is ground elder, which has elder-like leaves quite different from other plants in the family and which can be found on path, track and road edges all month. A plant with a umbellifer-like flat white flower head, but in fact a member of the fleabane family, is yarrow, which appears in the second half (sometimes more towards the end of the month) and then lasts all summer.

Another confusing family of flowers which can sometimes be seen on waysides and field edges in June are the various cabbage and mustard family plants, most commonly the rather feeble looking hedge mustard. Black mustard with its spray of yellow flowers sometimes also occasionally crops up - hoary mustard and bastard cabbage look very similar - while charlock is an arable weed but occasionally spreads to other habitats. Wintercress is another of this family which may last into the first week of June.

Yet another group of flowers has dandelion-like flowers, though dandelions themselves have nearly all gone over in May - if you think you see a dandelion on a grassy verge in June, it is very likely to be a catsear. Other taller, straggly plants with dandelion-like flowers include beaked hawksbeard, rough hawksbeard and the unfortunately named nipplewort. Note also smooth hawksbeard, which is shorter than rough or beaked hawksbeard, with daintier flowers on a many branched stem. You also occasionally come across bristly oxtongue, which is found mainly by the seaside but sometimes inland. Even more rarely, other hawkweeds (a confusing group of sub-species) are seen. With all these plants the leaves are often a key aid to identification.

A further family with dandelion-like flowers is the sow thistles. Smooth sow thistle is the most common variety in June, a plant that looks like it will be spiny but is in fact soft when you touch it. It is found in all sorts of situations, but is rather fond of odd urban or suburban corners. Rather different in appearance is prickly sow thistle, which looks like a thistle with yellow flowers (often closed, it seems), and which is more of a rural wasteground plant.

True thistles can also be seen growing throughout the month, the new leaves of creeping thistle sometimes looking pale and lettuce-like to begin with. Marsh, slender and musk thistles flower in June, while creeping thistle and spear thistle may be in bloom at the very end of the month. Burdock, a shrub with thistle-like flowers which look as if they are only half out, may also just be flowering at the end of the month, and by this time you can see the spiky plants of teasel, with their large oval flower heads, though they do not flower yet.

A gardener's despair (another one that is very hard to eradicate), but a very pretty climbing flower, is bindweed. Its huge white trumpets (large or hedge bindweed) cover hedgerows, verges or wasteground from the second week, while field bindweed, with smaller flowers, usually pink but sometimes white, is found more on grassy verges, as its name suggests. Two other climbers worth noting are honeysuckle, with its aromatic white flowers, and bittersweet (aka woody nightshade) with its inverted purple flowers, both of which can be seen all month: see June hedgerow, trees and berries for more on these.

Unnoticed plants and bare ground

Unnoticed, cleavers (aka goosegrass: the plant that sticks to your clothes) has miniscule white flowers in early June: towards the end of the month its seeds, at first green and then reddish, may be sticking to your socks. Stinging nettles, also now in flower, have reached waist or even neck height, and along with other vegetation can block paths that were perfectly clear earlier in the year.

Throughout the month one can see the fly whisk plants of horsetail, a survivor from the age of the dinosaurs. Broad-leaved or curled dock flowers may still be green or have rusty- coloured flowers that look as if they are already over: both plants are quite variable in the timing of their flowering, out in one place, over in another. Broomrapes - strange pale organisms that live as parasites on the roots of particular plants - also can sometimes be seen.

On bare ground, such as muddy paths and tracks, greater plantain puts up its flower spikes from mid month. You have to look very carefully indeed to see them in bloom, however, as all that is produced is a slight purple haze that is only evident at very close quarters. In the same place you can see pineapple weed, looking a bit like a mayweed that has lost its petals. Its flowers do indeed look like pineapples and smell like them too if you rub them.

Another very common plant of such habitats that you will probably overlook is knotgrass - a common but little regarded mat-forming weed which colonises bare ground: it can be flowering later in June but its flowers are too tiny to be noticed. Much prettier is scarlet pimpernel whose orangey-red flowers may crop up on bare ground at any time in the month. Shepherd's purse and groundsel can also sometimes occur as urban weeds, as can chickweed early in the month.

On heathland some bell heather and cross-leaved heath can be in flower in June, and this is also the place to see tormentil. Much more rarely, you may come across heath speedwell or heath bedstraw.

Grassland flowers on verges

Early in the month one can still find crosswort – whose greeny-yellow flower spikes look quite attractive en masse - while occasional patches of germander speedwell may last even into the second half. Other grassland flowers on verges during June include ribwort plantain, black or spotted medick, birdsfoot trefoil, goatsbeard, red and white clover, and cinquefoil.

In mown or grazed grass daisies are still seen. Silverweed can be found in flower at any time of the month, but is easily overlooked as its flowers look very similar at a casual glance to creeping buttercup, which also crops up occasionally on verges till late in the month. (Silverweed has very distinctive silver-backed leaves, from which it gets its name, but the flowers often look a bit detached from them). Some meadow buttercup may also crop up on verges, particularly in the first half.

In the second half of the month flowers appear on verges that are also found on downland. Examples include agrimony – a small spike delicately splashed with yellow flowers - as well as self-heal, hedge bedstraw, lady's bedstraw, field scabious, knapweed, vervain and mignonette. Meadow vetchling and lesser stitchwort - more normally meadow flowers - can also crop up on verges.

Summer stalwarts

June also sees the appearance of wayside flowers that will go on to last the whole summer. One that can be found from quite early in the month is common mallow, which forms clumps of attractive pink flowers on odd bits of wasteground and by the side of roads and tracks. It has a rarer, more delicate variety called musk mallow.

More of these summer stalwarts appear in the second half of June - that is when, for example, the bright orange common ragwort starts to appear on fields, verges and downland, as well as along railway lines. Poisonous to horses and so persecuted by some landowners, it is nevertheless a very pretty plant and an important food source of insects. (It needs to be distinguished from the much shorter Oxford ragwort - see Along railway lines below).

Sticking with this part of the colour pallet, the pretty yellow flowers of St John’s wort (used to treat depression) appear in the second half of June, along with their large flashy garden relative, rose of sharon. Also towards the end of the month you start to see the striking purple spikes of rosebay willowherb and possibly also the less showy great willowherb, though early July is a more normal time for both species to appear. A smaller member of this family that can be seen from early in the month is broad-leaved willowherb.

Two tall yellow relatives of the pea family - ribbed melilot or golden melilot - can appear on disturbed ground at this time. (Telling ribbed and golden melilot apart is not easy, but ribbed is taller and has shorter lower petals to its flower, whereas on golden they are equal.) There is a much less common white version of this plant - white melilot. At the very end of the month you may also see common toadflax or dark mullein, as well as the flower buds (ie they are not yet in bloom) of hemp agrimony and mugwort.

Along railway lines

The sides of railway lines can be alive with flowers in June. In particular this is a favourite place for oxeye daisy, which grows on trackside banks. The same habitat is also a good one to see foxgloves throughout the month and rosebay willowherb towards its end. Track verges are a popular place for climbing plants too. Early in June you can see the showy white flowers of Russian vine here, and it is joined in the second week by large or hedge bindweed and from mid month by broad-leaved everlasting pea.

On the track clinker itself, the Oxford ragwort that appeared in early May is generally over by early June, though can hang on later in a few places. Originally from the slopes of Mount Etna, it escaped in the 19th century from the botanical garden in Oxford and found clinker on railway lines a perfect home. For buddleia shrubs, meanwhile, the same habitat is like the stony deserts of its native China. It is abundant in the odd spaces on railways, and may be starting to flower by the end of the month.

Also on track clinker, you can see hawksbeards right from the start of the month - most likely smooth and beaked hawksbeard, though exact identification tends to be impossible from passing trains - and maybe some black mustard. Note also herb robert. In this dry stony environment, its foliage often turns red, but if you look closely it still manages to flower. Red valerian or its white variant can also flourish, and you sometimes see purple toadflax.

From around mid month you can see showy yellow evening primrose, which also sometimes grows on abandoned industrial land, and just possibly some golden or ribbed melilot. Towards the end of the month it may be joined by huge spikes of great mullein, or its smaller cousin dark mullein. Common ragwort - much taller than the Oxford variety - also springs up, both on the clinker and on the banks alongside.

Woodland

While the big floral displays of early spring are long gone in woodland, there are still a few flowers to be seen. At the very start of the month sanicle or woodruff may just be in flower, and you may come across yellowing patches of ramsons leaves, still giving off their pungent wild garlic smell. Throughout the month you may just come across a few herb robert, wood avens or red campion flowers, while foxglove can be seen in woodland clearings.

In the second half you may see enchanter's nightshade, a common woodland flower in July. Note also wall lettuce, whose flowers look a lot like those of nipplewort (which also occurs along woodland paths) but which has very distinctive arrow-shaped lower leaves.

Rarer species include small balsam, a large leafy plant with small yellow flowers, and occasional patches of yellow pimpernel or creeping jenny, both ground creepers with yellow flowers. You may just come across common figwort. Cuckoo pint - whose leaves were such a common sight on woodland floors in late winter and early spring - has by now produced its strange green berry seedheads, which can be starting to ripen to orange or red later in the month.

Garden escapees

In gardens (and as a crop on some farms) lavender flowers in the second week. The blue star-shaped flower tumbling down walls is trailing bellflower. Mexican fleabane (a type of daisy), ivy-leaved toadflax and yellow corydalis also grow out of the most unlikely cracks in stonework. Red valerian and its white valerian variant colonise garden walls. Feverfew with its daisy-like flowers, sometimes lurks at the bottom of walls.

Looking like the garden escapees they are, showy and aromatic clumps of dame's violet can occasionally be found in odd corners or on roadside verges in June, while the pretty upside-down purple flowers of columbine, still around early in the month, are actually a native species, though more often seen in or near gardens. Other naturalised escapees include yellow loosestrife - which is usually the garden variant whorled loosestrife, with orange centres to its flowers - and the cheerful purple-pink flowers of goat's rue. Very occasionally you still see some periwinkle flowers.

The tall attractive spikes of purple toadflax can be found right from the start of the month. The same is also true of yellowy-green flowered lady's mantle. Occasional yellow welsh poppies escape from gardens as well. Looking like a garden escapee but in fact a wild flower, stinking iris sometimes crops up in odd corners.

From mid month broad-leaved everlasting pea straggles over walls and hedges, and from the end of the month hollyhocks appear. Russian vine, which drapes over fences and even trees, may start to flower in white cascades from quite early in June, but more usually does so towards its end.

Damp places

In wet meadows and on the edges of streams and ditches the most attractive June flower is meadowsweet, which produces drifts of white flowers in the second half. At the start of the month you see lots of the very poisonous hemlock water dropwort in streams and damp ditches.

In streams on chalk, particularly early in the month, you can see water crowfoot growing - a pretty white flower with a yellow centres - and in the same habitat you might see watercress flowering (try the River Darent above Farningham). This is also a good month for water lilies - both yellow and white ones. Often seen on ornamental ponds but also sometimes in the wild, both need clean water, white needing even cleaner water than yellow.

Early in June in ponds and in marshy places you see yellow flag iris. Reeds are now at their full height, and bulrushes produce their distinctive blooms - the brown cylinder of the female flower and the fluffy beige male flower on top. In boggy areas look out for lesser spearwort, which looks very like a buttercup except for its long narrow leaves. Marsh thistles, not surprisingly, can also grow in marshland or damper meadows.

Much rarer plants of damp places include common comfrey with cream or dull purple flowers and leaves that seem to creep down the stem: look carefully, however, as the non-native Russian comfrey, whose leaves partly creep down the stem, is much commoner and found in many more habitats. Towards the end of the month you may just see common valerian (not to be confused with the red or white valerian found on railway lines or at the seaside). Water forget-me-not, water chickweed, water speedwell, water violet and marsh bedstraw also sometimes crop up.

Towards the very end of the month himalayan balsam may just start to flower - very invasive (it can choke streams) it is nevertheless very popular with bumble bees - and you may just see the first spikes of purple loosestrife or marsh woundwort.

Arable fields

Arable fields can look rather attractive in June, with green wheat rippling in hypnotic patterns in the breeze. Towards the end of the month barley, which is the earliest to ripen, may be turning gold.

On arable edges scented mayweed smells faintly of chamomile if you rub its flowers. Having almost identical flowers, but on a more frizzy, straggling plant, is stinking chamomile. As its name suggests it has a less pleasant aroma (though "stinking" is overstating it a bit), and a key to identification is that it is the leaves as well as the flowers carry the scent.

Later in the month the larger-flowered scentless mayweed may appear - easy to identify as it has no aroma at all: it goes on to become the most common arable weed in the summer and early autumn. The frizzy leaves and yellow heads of pineapple weed (like a daisy without its petals, which does actually smell of pineapple if rubbed) look like a mayweed about to flower, but it is in fact a separate species and increasingly common on disturbed ground as the month goes on.

The edge of arable fields is also the place to see tiny white field pansies, the red flowers of scarlet pimpernel and - sadly much rarer - the delicate purple flowers of common fumitory and the tiny pink stars of field madder. Cut-leaved cranesbill is fond of crop edges too and you can occasional find field speedwell here, distinguishable from the germander speedwell found in grassland by having one whitened petal.

Prickly sow thistle and (less often) smooth sow thistle can be arable weeds too, while fat hen and knotgrass (which may just be starting to put out its very tiny and inconspicuous flowers at the end of the month) colonise bare ground at field edges. Shepherd's purse, with its distinctive heart-shaped seeds, is also sometimes seen, though it seems more at home on town streets these days: the same is true of groundsel.

The most striking arable weed in June is undoubtedly the poppy, however. It can appear in ones or twos on field margins or can take over whole fields, but just where it does the latter is unpredictable from year to year. That being said the South Downs and the vineyards around Luddesdown in Kent are usually good places to see it.

The oilseed rape fields that were such a sea of yellow flowers just a few weeks ago are now acres of green seeds, which can be starting to turn brown at the month's end (sometimes with a brief period of golden hues in between: in later springs such as 2013 and 2021 they may even still be in flower early in the month). Wild radish - identified by the particular bulbous shape of its petals, which can be white, yellowish or purple and are veined with delicate purple lines - can pop up in the middle of this crop, and on the edges of other arable fields. Other crucifers (cabbage-like plants) that you can see as arable weeds include charlock and hedge mustard, both yellow flowered.

Very occasionally you see crops of blue-flowered flax (aka linseed) or purple lucerne, or isolated plants that have seeded from them. Another purple-flowered plant, the exotic-looking tansy-leaved phacelia, can be used as a conservation strip plant or occur as an arable weed, having original escaped from wildflower seed mixes. Very rarely (and usually to the west of London, in Wiltshire or Oxfordshire) you also come across the striking blue borage, which looks like an escaped garden flower.

Traditionally haymeadows were cut in late June or early July and you may still see this happening. The hay is left to dry in the field and then gathered into circular bales (sometimes wrapped in black plastic, sometimes not) as winter feed for cattle. Historically, sheep were then released into the fields to graze the remaining grass, but this is not so often done these days.

And talking of sheep, by June those cute lambs of early spring are almost fully grown. They no longer look so adorable and are presumably not long for this world. During June (or even in late May) it is made even more obvious which ones are destined for the abattoir, since the ewes which will go on to breed again next year are shorn and the lambs are not.

Cattle in the fields in June often seem to be cows and calves - presumably beef cattle, since dairy cows are separated from their calves soon after giving birth.

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